Abstract Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory bases its argument on the premise that human individuals, just like animals have a tendency to have a natural inclination to establish and maintain lasting affectionate bonds (attachments) to the familiar and irreplaceable others. Bowlby further asserts that once the attachments are established, the strength, and stability of the links is related the emotional stability and well-being of the individual throughout life. Bowlby proposes that the attachment initially form during infancy and often involve one primary attachment figure (mostly the mother or other primary caregiver). However, growth from childhood to adulthood results in the development of other secondary and multiple attachments which are organized into hierarchies from the most accessible to the least accessible. This forms the lifespan development of an individual as attachment needs for comfort and closeness shift from parents to peers as part of a healthy lifespan development. This paper discusses Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory as a theory of lifespan development. The paper is organized with an introduction which briefly discusses the concept of ethology and its ancestry from the study on the graylag geese by Konrad Lorenz. It further presents the contributions of Bowlby and the applications of the theory on human beings lifespan development and contemporary practice. The paper logically ends with a conclusion. Introduction Ethology emphasizes that human behavior is tied to evolution and biology, and is therefore characterized by critical periods. According to ethnologists, the critical periods are time frames during which the presence of lack of certain experiences exerts long-lasting influence on human individuals. The concept of ethology rose to prominence after a European zoologist (Lorenz) undertook a behavioral study on graylag geese and their behavior of following their mothers immediately after they hatch (Marga, 2011). In hisÂ attempt to study on attachment, Lorenz subdivided the eggs laid by one goose into two groups with one being given to the mother for hatching while the other was hatched in an incubator. The goslings hatched by the mother followed the mother immediately after hatching while those hatched in the incubator followed Lorenz sine he was the one they saw immediately after hatching. Even after marking the goslings and placing them in a box, the goslings run to the mother and Lorenz according immediately after the box was opened (van der Horst & van der Veer, 2009). Lorenz described the process as imprinting. Imprinting refers to the process through which rapid, innate learning takes place and involves the creation of attachment to the first mobile object visible to a newly hatched gosling. John Bowlby took the concept ahead illustrating an application of ethological theory on human behavior and development. In his view, attachment to a caregiver during the first year of a child has significant consequences throughout the individualâ€™s lifespan. In his words, attachment influences human relationships â€œfrom the cradle to the graveâ€ (Pitman & Scharfe, 2010, p. 201). Bowlby argues that if the attachment is both positive and secure, the individual has a high likelihood of developing positively through childhood and into adulthood. On the other side, if the attachment is both negative and insecure, the individual has high chances of not attaining optimal life-span development. It is the concern of human individuals that they reach optimal lifespan development, something that ethological theory partly tries to explain. This paper discusses Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory and its applications in the course of lifespan development. Bowlbyâ€™s perspectives on ethological attachment theory From the perspective of ethological theory, babies have an innate biological preparation to participate actively towards the establishment of a bond with caregivers. The ethological theory holds that such an attachment promotes the likelihood that the genes of individuals survive (Makulincer & Shaver, 2012). The theory also posits that the behaviors of children are best understood in the context of their adaptive value hence they seek to fully integrate with the entire organism-environment arrangement. This includes physical, social as well as the cultural aspects an individual is exposed to in the course of life-span development. While Bowlbyâ€™s ethological theoryÂ places its emphasis on genetics and biological aspects of development, learning also plays an integral role in life-span development since it facilitates flexibility and adaptation of human behavior. One of Bowlbyâ€™s concerns had to do with the ability of children raised in other institutions such as orphanages to form lasting relationships. Bowlbyâ€™s proposal was that children who grow up in institutions such as orphanages have difficulties when it comes to love because they never had the opportunity to establish attachments to a mother figure in the early stage of their lives. The attachment, in Bowlbyâ€™s view, is an emotional bond established between two people and this attachment is vital in the building of healthy relationships (Makulincer, Shaver & Berant, 2013). He argued that the bonding process starts at birth and runs through to later stages in life. Below six months, the infant is attached to the primary caregiver. Between six to eighteen months, the separation of the child from the attachment figure upsets the child causing frequent cries. Another accompanying behavior at this stage is the fear of strangers. While infants develop a primary attachment to a single caregiver, researchers also argue that other significant attachments also develop. Such attachments include those with siblings, fathers, and other close figures who interact with the child. Mary Ainsworth, an American scholar to study the area of attachment describes the attachments as secondary attachments (Marga, 2011). She further describes secondary attachments as important bonds in the life-span development of an individual. These attachments are vital since the child has to live in world beyond the mother/primary caregiver. Secondary attachments help in the transformation of the child from the comfortable symbiotic relationship that he/she initially forms with the primary caregiver to include others in the society (Makulincer & Shaver, 2012). It is from this development that the child is able to develop age-appropriate independence and autonomy in the course of life-span development. Children imitate their models and the positive interactions with the caregiver promote a sense of identity and attachment. Children also develop multiple attachments as witnessed in Ainsworthâ€™s secondary attachments (Marga, 2011). A father who is warm and affectionate towards the child becomes emotionally involved with the child and establishes attachment. Researchers also find that when sons feel understood by their fathers, they develop attachments towards, theirÂ fathers. On the other side, when sons feel misunderstood by their fathers, they did not only feel afraid of them but also did not want to be like the male parent in the future. The lesson here is that paternal affection and understanding are key components that help in the promotion of positive relationships and attachments between a male parent and the child. According to Sable (2008), Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory is recognized as a lifespan developmental theory. The author further argues that it is relevant in the understanding of how early affection experiences exert influence on emotional and physical well being of an individual both in childhood and adulthood. The author specifically singles the importance of Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory in clinical practice as it helps in understanding clientsâ€™ distress and the carrying out of psychotherapy. Contemporary research on neurobiology of attachment extends the basis of Bowlbyâ€™s conception of an attachment behavior system and suggests that its functions are executed in the brainâ€™s right hemisphere, specifically the right cortex (Sable, 2008). Just like Bowlby asserts that attachment system evolves on the need for protection from environmental dangers such as predation, the brain is also an evolving organ largely influenced by â€œnatural selectionâ€ (Sable, 2008, p. 22) and later shaped by environmental experiences. It is from this realization that knowledge of attachment theories becomes invaluable in psychotherapy. Application of Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment in lifespan development According to Pitman & Scharfe (2010), the principles of attachment theory are distinctively visible in moments of distress or sickness when the individual feels that their survival is under threat. However, there are many other instances when attachment behaviors are manifest such as childrenâ€™s first experiences in schools and day care centers. Pitman & Scharfe (2010) observe that during the first day in day care centers, children experience increases in cortisol levels and heart rates. In the course of an individualâ€™s developmental lifespan, other incidences include airport separations when couples display attachment behaviors as well as distress irrespective of their attachment security. Knowledge of attachment is useful in psychotherapy. According to Pitman & Scharfe (2010), individuals with high attachment anxiety and avoidance experience greater physical symptoms in comparison with individuals who have low attachment anxiety and avoidance. The researchersÂ also report on the existence of an association between attachment anxiety and avoidance on one hand and depression on the other across varying age groups. These range from samples of children and adolescents, emerging adults, married couples, community samples in transition to parenthood, university samples, as well as clinical samples. The results indicate an association between higher attachment anxiety and avoidance with depression (Sable, 2008). The establishment of attachment with the therapists determines the effectiveness of a therapist in giving assistance to a client. Bowlby believes that the development of a new attachment with a therapist enables the therapist to assist the client in revising the story of the clientâ€™s life into a more consistent narrative. According to Sable (2010), the role of the therapist is to provide a springboard for change and this is possible through joint exploration of the painful feelings and the unhappy events that contribute the current emotional problems of the client. In order to win this trust, the therapist ought to become a relatively secure base where the client experiences safety and support. The therapist has to cultivate for this attachment through calming and soothing interactions although it may take some time before the therapist is accepted and felt as emotionally familiar and affectively accustomed to the client. One of the applications of Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory by clinicians is in the assessment of the clientâ€™s attachment style so that the clinician can regulate the therapeutic approach (Sable, 2010). The outcomes of a therapy process reveal that avoidant outpatients show minimal clinical improvements in comparison to the secure and anxious outpatients after individual therapy (Makulincer, Shaver & Berant, 2013). They also report that in a study carried out in a university program training clinic, avoidant attachment had an inverse relationship to psychotherapy outcome. Researchers agree that problems in the working alliance between clients and therapists partially mediate the avoidance-outcome association. In another sample of clients with eating disorders, avoidant-attachment was linked with dropout of group psychotherapy. Another contemporary application of Bowlbyâ€™s ethological theory is in the diagnosis of the reactive attachment disorder. Follan & Minnis (2009) investigate the cases of the forty-four juvenile thieves described as affectionless psychopaths. Out of the sampled â€˜juvenile thieves,â€™ 86 percent had undergone through prolonged separationÂ from primary caregivers in the early stages of their lives apart from being placed under multiple care placements. Follan & Minnis (2009) find out that in their sample, 60 percent of children with reactive attachment disorder had been separated from their homes either resulting from neglect or other types of maltreatment. According to Bowlby, the experience of separation from primary caregivers was a key etiological factor contributing towards the development of difficulties in children. These findings lend credence to Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory in the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). While Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory receives worldwide support, it also faces some criticisms. One such criticism is its reliance on biology and evolution as the basis of development as well as the use of selective observations in naturalistic situations. Marga (2011) presents contradicting reports of a study involving 162 farm children where there was no relation between infant training on one hand and personality development on the other. As a result, the researcher implores scientists to â€œquit blaming momâ€ as a dismissal to Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory. While the criticisms are there, Bowlbyâ€™s ethological theory receives widespread support and application as it relates to the lifespan development of an individual. Conclusion The behavioral development of a human being begins at birth and occurrences at the formative years determine the personality development of the individual later in adulthood. Many theories such as the behavioral and psychoanalytic theories explain personality development of the human individual. The quality of the entire human life is the accurate measure of effective lifespan development of the individual. Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory argues that human individuals develop attachments to primary caregivers that are affectionate and supportive. As individuals grow, they develop other secondary and multiple attachments with peers in order to get security as they interact with different environments. Bowlbyâ€™s perspective has received widespread acceptance although it has also been criticized for placing emphasis on biology and evolution. Nevertheless, the theory receives application in psychotherapy. Researchers report that clients are open up to therapists after they develop a feeling of security and attachment with the therapist. There is evidence that psychotherapyÂ outcomes also depend on the establishment of attachment between the client and the therapist. There is also a link between avoidant-attachment and dropout of group psychotherapy. The theory specifically helps in understanding the distress of clients in various stages in life and this facilitates positive outcomes during physiotherapy. There is further evidence that Bowlbyâ€™s ethological attachment theory also helps in the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder. As individuals grow from childhood to adulthood, their attachments change due to changes in the environment, making Bowlbyâ€™s ethological theory a theory of lifespan development. References Follan, M., & Minnis, H. (2009). Forty-four juvenile thieves revisited: From Bowlby to reactive attachment disorder. Child: care, health and development 36(5): 639-645. Makulincer, M., & Shaver, P.R. (2012). Adult Attachment Orientations and Relationship Processes. Journal of Family Theory & Review 4: 259-274. Makulincer, M., Shaver, P.R., & Berant, E. (2013). An attachment perspective on therapeutic processes and outcomes. Journal of Personality 81(6): 606-616. Marga, V. (2011). The Social Nature of the Motherâ€™s Tie to Her Child: John Bowlbyâ€™s Theory of Attachment in Post-war America. British Journal for the History of Science 44(3): 401-426. Pitman, R., & Scharfe, E. (2010).Testing the function of attachment hierarchies during emerging adulthood. Personal Relationships 17(2): 201-216. Sable, P. (2008). What is Adult Attachment? Clinical Social Work Journal 36(1): 21-30. van der Horst, F.C.P., & van der Veer, R. (2009). Separation and divergence: The untold story of James Robertsonâ€™s and John Bowlbyâ€™s theoretical dispute on mother-child separation. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 45(3): 236-252.
HOTEL INDUSTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT By VASUNDHARA TANWAR LITERATURE REVIEW When we talk of hotels we never think that something like that could have an impact on the environment and people would spend millions of rupees and infinite number of hours to deal with this so called impact. However this is absolutely the case. The seemingly small problem is literally taking the world by storm. So much so that national governments, hotels and even the UN are taking steps in order to find solutions to this problem.Extensive research has been done in the recent years by economists and scientists etc to come up with the most sustainable ways to run hotels since the degradation of the environment is a major concern worldwide. Papers like â€œAn analysis of environmental management, organizational context and performance of Spanish hotelsâ€ by M. J. Alvarez which addresses the factors that determine the deployment of environmental management practices and its effects on firmsâ€™ financial performance have been published.Results find support for the notion that age of facilities, size, chain affiliation, stakeholder environmental pressures, and their use of operations management techniques exert a lasting influence on the degree of implementation of environmental management practices by hotel firms. Moreover, findings show a positive relationship between environmental management practices and firmsâ€™ financial performance. Various other economists in different countries have drawn similar conclusions. The United Nations environment programme also published a guide â€œhow the hotel and tourism industry can protect the ozone layerâ€.Environmental Good Practice in Hotels, published by UNEP IE and the International Hotel & Restaurant Association (IH&RA), presents 15 case studies selected from the IH&RA annual Environmental Award. The case studies document environmental programmes initiated by independent hotels and international chains across the globe â€“ in Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Action areas include environmental policy, design and construction, water, energy, waste, emissions, purchasing, staff training, and guest communication. The range of environmental initiatives featured is extensive, from simple recycling easures to water conservation using the latest technology, and from resorts built to strict environmental guidelines, to small hotels where the personal commitment of the general manager drives environmental activities. All case studies highlight the environmental and economic benefits gained by the actions taken. Also included are examples of environmental initiatives taken by national hotel associations, and a list of sources on environmental management publications and programmes in the hotel industry. These are just some examples of what is being said and done by organizations that observe what is going on.The actual participants, the hotels, are also not far behind. Many hotels have come up with various innovative ways to contribute to the betterment of the environment. Some of them have won various awards for this very purpose. Hotels now days strive to achieve the ECOTELÂ® certification which is primarily the hallmark for environmentally sensitive hotels. One of the pioneers in such activities would be the orchid group of hotels. However, there are others that strive to achieve excellence in this cause and some have been quite successful too. INTRODUCTION Most countries rely heavily on the services sector for its growth.A major part of this sector is tourism. Tourism is one of the leading growth sectors of the economy and brings in billions of dollars for developing countries. When we talk about tourism we can hardly isolate it from talk of hotels. Hotels in a sense are synonymous with tourism and one cannot be talked about without reference to the other. The growth of the tourism industry has greatly increased the amount of stress on the environment. Now each individual has varying degrees of impact on the environment which largely depends on the personal choices made by individuals and is scattered world over. The same is true for hotels.They have an effect on the biodiversity right from its conception. This makes it imperative for us to study exactly how and where do hotels affect our environment, what can be done to reduce this impact and how aware is the current generation of hotels regarding this issue. Taking the example of India we see that as a result of increasing tourism in Goa, developers built several hotels. The hotels soon drew up to 66,000 gallons of water per day from wells and other local sources. Many of the wells and rivers the community had relied on went dry. This is a common problem in many areas where tourism runs into the limits of natural resources.With various such instances in several parts of the world today, ECOTOURISMâ€”tourism that is nature-oriented and environmentally focusedâ€”is growing rapidly. This represents a growing market for environmentally friendly options in the tourism industry. Ecotourism aside, many in the hotel industry have recognized the negative impact their business activities have on the environment and have taken action to alleviate those impacts. Environmentally responsible business practices dovetail well with the newfound popularity of ecotourism. They harmonize tourism and environmental sustainability.This awareness has given rise to what can be called the â€œGREEN HOTELSâ€. The term â€œgreen hotelsâ€ describes hotels that strive to be more environment friendly through the efficient use of energy, water, and materials while providing quality services. Green hotels conserve and preserve by saving water, reducing energy use, and reducing solid waste. They have seen benefits such as reduced costs and liabilities, high return and low-risk investments, increased profits, and positive cash flows. Identifying these benefits and incentives has allowed the popularity of green hotels to grow. Hotels are consistently becoming greener.The most costly and wasteful use of resources in hotels are usually in the consumption of nonrenewable energy, excessive water use, and the generation of waste. Through this paper we would try to point out the complex nature of the impact that hotels have on our environment and the steps that can be taken in order to minimize this impact as much as possible. We would also like to shed light on the work that has already been done in this field by various hotels and organizations. Many organizations have done commendable work in trying to reduce their ecological footprint and have, in some sense, become pioneers and inspiration for others.For instance, the orchid group of hotels is pretty known for the kind of work it does. IMPACTS Tourism has a fairly large environmental footprint. Hotels, being at the heart of it, shoulder the responsibility for this. The following table shows that hotels are responsible for 21% of total emissions generated by tourism industry. These just constitute one part of their impact which in reality has many layers and levels to it. The hotels have an impact on the biodiversity at each stage of its life cycle, right from planning to its closure.These impacts could be summarized as follows: At the planning stage, the most important issue in determining the level of impact that a hotel will have relates to choices about its location and design. Even the most sustainably operated hotel will have major impacts if it is built in a biodiversity-sensitive area. Choices about the materials that will be used to construct the hotel, where those materials will come from and the total physical footprint of the hotel will also influence how significant its impacts will be in the operational stage.At the construction stage, impact is determined by the size and location of the area cleared for development and where construction activities are taking place, the choice of construction methods, the sources and amount and type of materials, water and energy used to build the hotel, the location of temporary camps for construction workers, inadequate storage facilities for construction materials, the amount of construction waste that has to be disposed of, and other types of damage such as surface soil erosion or compaction caused by construction activities or disruption of natural water flows and drainage patterns.In the operational stage, a hotel's impact comes mainly from the energy, water, food and other resources that are consumed in running the hotel, by the solid and liquid wastes it produces, by the way its grounds are managed, and by the direct impacts of its guests. In addition, regular renovation and replacement of furniture, appliances and facilities can cause impacts through purchasing choices and increased waste generation.Using energy and water more efficiently, using organic and sustainably produced food, reducing, treating and disposing of waste appropriately, making sustainable purchasing decisions and managing gardens with natural-style plantings can all help a hotel to reduce its adverse impacts on biodiversity. Similarly, a hotel's relationship with host communities not only affects the sustainable operations of the hotel but also the use of environmental resources by communities themselves. At the closure stage, a hotel's impacts come from the disposal of materials removed from the hotel to refurbish it, convert it for other uses, or demolish it, nd from the work involved in these activities. It may be possible to reuse and recycle some materials, but there may also be some toxic materials, particularly from older buildings, which will require careful handling and management. A responsible hotel operator should also foresee supporting activities of ecological restoration as required. Responsible siting and design, the effective management of energy and water consumption, and the proper disposal of wastewater and solid waste are important challenges for any hotel hoping to improve the sustainability of its operations.Now even though a hotel has environmental impact through different stages of its lifecycle the most easily cited and the longest running impact that they have is at their operational stage since once a hotel has been built, it stays in the business for very many years under normal circumstances. The day to day running has impacts which are a lot times ignored in the overall picture. This mostly becomes the case because individually, hotels do not have a significant impact on the environment. Collectively however, they can be very wasteful and use huge amount of resources.It has been estimated that seventy-five percent of hotelsâ€™ environmental impacts can be directly related to excessive consumption. This is wasteful in terms of resources and creates unnecessary operational costs. The three key areas of environmental impact are energy, water, and waste. Energy â€“ Excessive energy use is extremely costly and with minor adjustments, it can lead to massive cost savings. According to Gossling et. al. (2005), â€œthe average energy consumption per bed per night in hotels might be in the order of 130 Mega joules.Hotels generally use more energy per visitor that local residents, as they have energy intense facilities, such as bars, restaurants, and pools, and have more spacious rooms. Studies have determined that a hotel emits an average 20. 6 kg of carbon dioxide per night. Waste â€“ A study conducted by Bohdanowicz(2005) also indentified that hotels are not only resource intensive and that waste generation is on e of the most visible effects on the environment. One estimate identified that â€œan average hotel produces in excess of one kilogram of waste per guest per dayâ€.Approximately thirty percent of waste in hotels can be diverted through reuse and recycling. WaterÂ â€“ Tourists and residents alike require a clean and dependable supply of water for survival including drinking, cooking and cleansing. However, water is integral to the amenities usually expected by tourists, such as swimming pools, landscaped gardens, and golf courses. Water also supports industries such as agriculture that support the tourism industry (Pigram, 1995). Thus, tourists demand more water than local resident s on a per capita basis (Essex, Kent ; Newnham, 2004).It has been estimated by Salen (1995) that 15,000 cubic meters of water would typically supply 100 rural farmers for three years and 100 urban families for two years, yet only supply 100 luxury hotel guests for less than two months (Holden, 2000). In dryer regions, tourists' water consumption can amount to 440 liters a day per tourist, which is almost double the average amount of water used by residents in Spain (UNEP, 2008). In destinations that do not have the required infrastructure and systems to manage these impacts, severe degradation of the environment can occur.The following table summarizes the environmental impact of the day to day workings of any hotel Service/Activity| Description| Main Environmental Impacts| Administration| Hotel management Reception of clients| Energy, water and materials (mainly paper) Generation of waste and hazardous waste (toner cartridges)| Technical Services| Equipment for producing hot water and heating Air conditioning Lighting Swimming pools Green areas Mice and insect extermination Repairs and maintenance| Energy and water consumption Consumption and generation of a wide range of hazardous products Air and soil emissionsGeneration of waste water Pesticides use| Restaurant/bar| Breakfast, lunch, dinner Beverages and snacks| Energy, water and raw materials consumption Packaging waste Organic waste| Kitchen| Food conservation Food preparation Dish washing| Consumption of energy and water Packaging waste Oil waste Organic waste Generation of odours| Room Use| Use by guests Products for guests' use Housekeeping| Energy, water and raw materials consumption Use of hazardous products Generation of waste packaging Generation of waste water| Laundry| Washing and ironing of guest clothesWashing and ironing of hotel linens| Consumption of energy and water Use of hazardous cleaning products Generation of waste waterÂ | (Graci, 2009) This gives us a clear enough picture of the ecological impacts of hotels. Thus it becomes imperative that each hotel recognizes them and takes initiative to curb these impacts. With the growth of the tourism sector all over the world and with more and more hotels coming up each day these small things become issues of epic proportions when looked at collectively. In a time when our environment is in a very fragile condition one canâ€™t ignore such a situation.The sooner hotels realize this the better it would be. However, these issues were not even brought to light till very recently. The annual hospitality consultantsâ€™ conference in 2007 did not even mention any of the environmental issues that plagued hotels in their top 10 problems of the industry. BEST PRACTICES There are many green practices that hotels can implement and they also help save unnecessary costs. There can be many ways in which a hotel can reduce its footprint. Some of them can be: * Not discharging waste in water bodies â€“ prevents pollution. * Recycling Use of compact fluorescent lights â€“ saves energy. * Reuse of linens â€“ saves water, detergent, energy and greenhouse gases. * Low-flow shower systems â€“ saves water and energy. * Local products â€“ save transportation costs. * Installation of green roofs â€“ saves energy. * Installation of solar heaters or other renewable energy source â€“ saves energy. These points are just a brief outline to what can really be done in order to go green. The possibilities as such are endless. There are some more sophisticated and cost heavy methods that can also be undertaken. BENEFITS OF GOING GREENCost benefits Financial savings are one of the most significant factors that influence the implementation of environmental initiatives in a hotel. This is especially evident for hotel businesses that operate in a highly competitive market and where the cost of energy, water and waste disposal are high. Hotel operators that can maximize their efficiency and reduce waste will be more cost-effective than their competitors. Hotels also use large amounts of energy to keep guests cool in hot temperatures, and equally large amounts of energy to keep them warm during the winter.In some destinations, hotels place an additional, sometimes unsustainable demand on local water resources and generate large quantities of food and packaging waste. Despite the setup costs and the possible lengthy return on investment associated with environmental initiatives, the economic benefits usually outweigh the cost of implementation. Starting with projects that are less capital intensive â€“ such as retrofitting light bulbs, energy metering, and training staff to be conscious of energy use â€“ can lead to substantial cost savings. Competitive advantageGreen programs can provide a competitive advantage to leaders as long as green activities continue to be voluntary. Over time, however, green practices in the hospitality industry will become a baseline requirement, particularly as the cost of non-renewable energy continues to rise, regulatory pressure increases, and consumers become more demanding. Therefore, hotels with business models that revolve around green practices will have the strongest opportunity to achieve a competitive advantage by being ahead of the emerging sustainability curve. Employee retentionEmployees are identified as one of the greatest benefits of going green. Employees, like hotel guests, are increasingly sophisticated and â€œtunedâ€ into current thinking in society and are far more likely to identify with an employer whose principles and practices are aligned with their values. Environmental programs have proved to be an effective means of generating enthusiasm and motivating staff to work as a team to achieve a common purpose. Many hotel companies use environmental programs as a staff incentive â€“ the financial savings earned are translated into cash or other rewards such as in-house events or trips.Employee turnover rate in the hotel sector is relatively high therefore increasing the retention rate will also save the business money in training of new staff. Customer loyalty There has been a shift in the expectations and demands of consumers. The typical hotel guest of today is more sophisticated and to varying degrees is likely to be concerned about environmental issues such as recycling bottles, cans and paper at home as well as making greener lifestyle choices, such as organic food or fuel-efficient vehicles.Many guests however, make their decision to stay at a hotel facility based on location, amenities, and service. The implementation of environmental initiatives may play a smaller role in a guest's choice of a property. The influence from customers however occurs when their level of awareness increases and they come to expect environmental practices such as recycling. Despite first-time guests basing their decisions on location, amenities and service, customer loyalty may increase once they have experienced a hotel which has demonstrated a level of environmental commitment.Regulatory compliance Hotels must anticipate future regulatory changes and implement initiatives to mitigate the possible costly effects of emerging regulation. Savvy businesses are aware that regulations do not have to be a negative restraint on their daily operations â€“ in fact, they can offer opportunities to gain an advantage over competitors. Some environmental regulations are good for economic competition as they stimulate innovation that can offset the cost of compliance. By implementing measures in the face of societal and egulatory pressures, unexpected, but substantial cost savings as well as potential new areas of profit may be found. The hotel industry worldwide is increasingly being regulated for waste, water, energy use and greenhouse gas emission. Being aware of pending rule changes will allow you to adopt measures in advance, and avoid potentially higher future costs which may be associated with compliance. Risk management Risk minimization is now viewed as increasingly intertwined with good corporate social responsibility and governance.Managing risk is as much about minimizing the potential damage from decisions and actions taken from within a company as it is about managing external exposure. Traditionally, a hotel's risk management strategy has been focused on health and safety concerns around food and water, pest infestation, fire or water damage, outbreaks of disease, and guest security and safety. In recent years however, environmental and social issues are emerging as a key risk issue for the lodging sector. Environmental risks include: * Water and land contamination. * Air and noise pollution. Supply chain environmental practices. * Waste management. Environmental risks also have an impact on the cost of capital for businesses of various types and sizes, and may affect the value of a company over the long term. In addition, the investment community is increasingly regarding excellence in environmental management and performance as an indication of the quality and aptitude of management in general. Some insurance companies and lenders are beginning to selectively adjust their rates based on environmental criteria stipulated by ethical funds.Companies that integrate the environment into their business decisions and reduce their environmental risk and potential liabilities are in a better position to secure investment and reduce their financial and reputational market exposure (Graci and Dodds, 2009). Cause it's the right thing to do! Beyond regulation and compliance, many environmental and social initiatives are voluntary. Whether driven by cost savings or a principled strategy, the hotel industry is recognizing the environment, the community and their human capital as a valuable resource to be protected.Long-term business sustainability will depend on this. Many hotels have implemented social initiatives and corporate social responsibility (CSR) into their regular day-to-day practices. Corporate social responsibility in the hotel industry ideally exists in human resources management, the local community, and through promoting and practicing environmental initiatives and is heavily influenced by internal and external forces. CSR has been widely expanding throughout the hotel industry, mainly to prove that corporate unethical behavior is no longer a problem.Thus, hotels are embarking on being ethical through social initiatives by protecting and supporting communities, their human resources, and by implementing environmental initiatives. Many international and local hotels are becoming involved in corporate social responsibility in order to extend their brand knowledge to different types of audiences, to gain employee retention and improved competitive advantage, and lastly because it is â€œthe right thing to doâ€. Sixty-five percent of the top 100 companies in the world employ some sort of corporate social responsibility statement featured on their websites.Several multinational companies have gained a very negative brand reputation based on their past unethical practices. Larger companies have been criticized as being the main culprit in releasing excess greenhouse emissions, climate change, environmental devastation, and unfair treatment of employees. Due to such criticisms and negative publicity, many businesses have increased the focus on corporate social responsibility. HIGH ACHIEVERS When it comes to hotels that are environmentally sustainable the first name that comes to mind is the Orchid group of hotels.The OrchidÂ became Asia's first Five Star hotel to win the ECOTELÂ® certification shortly after opening in May of 1997 and today (January 2011) is the only Hotel in the World to win overÂ 80Â international / national awards in 13 years from inception. Under the management ofÂ The OrchidÂ Owner Vithal Kamat, the hotel has earned more environmental accolades than any other hotel in the world. With this latest achievement,Â The OrchidÂ becomes one of only six hotels in the world to maintain top-level, â€œfive-globe,â€ ECOTELÂ®-Certification. Though orchid group is a pioneer in environmentally friendly hotels, others ave also done substantial work. The fern group of hotels in India being one of them. The Uppal in New Delhi, Seasons in Pune etc are other ecotel hotels. Various international hotels are also actively involved in such projects that put environmental sustainability at its fore. In conclusion it can be said that though environmental sustainability is big problem that is plaguing the hospitality industry, itâ€™s still not too late to correct the situation. 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WIT Press, Boston. * Claver- Cortes, E. , Molina-Azorin, J. F. Pereira-Moliner, J. , Lopez-Gamero, M. D. 2007, â€˜Environmental Strategies and Their Impact on Hotel Performance' Journal of Sustainable Tourism. , vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 663-679. * Dodds, R. 005, Barriers to the Implementation of Sustainable Tourism Policy in Destinations. University of Surrey School of Management, Surrey. * Essex, S. , Kent, M. , ; Newnham, R. 2004, â€˜Tourism development in Mallorca: Is water supply a constraint? â€˜ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol 12, no. 1, pp. 4-28. * Fairmont Hotel and Resorts 2001, The Green Partnership Guide. A Practical Guide to Greening your Hotel, 2nd edition, Toronto * Fairmont Hotels and Resorts 2008, Corporate Responsibility. Retrieved February 04, 2010, fromhttp://www. fairmont. com/EN_FA/AboutFairmont/enviroment/Awards/CorporateEn
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